Endnotes For
"Those Martian Women!"



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  1. Gloria Steinem, Moving Beyond Words (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994) 270.

  2. The debate rages on as to why the secular feminist position on abortion has shifted. See Linda Gordon, "Why Nineteenth-Century Feminists Did Not Support 'Birth Control' and Twentieth-Century Feminists Do: Feminism, Reproduction, and the Family" in Rethinking the Family, eds. Barrie Thorne and Marilyn Yalom (New York: Longman, 1982); and Mary Crane Derr, ed., Prolife Feminism Yesterday and Today (New York: Sulzberger&Graham Publishing Co., 1995).

  3. One can only wonder what would have happened if they had said, "Women Against Drunk Driving". It is acceptable for mothers in a patriarchy to express anger over injustices to their husbands and children. However, if they dare to express anger over injustices to themselves and other women, they will be ostracized.

  4. Leila J. Rupp and Verta Taylor, Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960's (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987) 23, 53. It is interesting to note that most evangelical Christian feminists, who work in an extremely hostile environment, also call themselves "egalitarian". However, the new name doesn't lead to more acceptance.

  5. 1998 publicity pamphlet for the Journal of Women's History.

  6. Susan Hamson, Tower Of Psychobabble: TheTime Article Revisited, June 14, 1997.
    http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/women_rebuttal_from_uranus/yawn1.htm

  7. John Gray, Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus (New York: HarperCollins, 1992) 77.

  8. See Jane Mansbridge, "What Is the Feminist Movement?" in Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women's Movement eds. Myra Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995) 27; Barbara Levy Simon, Never Married Women (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987) 56; and WMST-L (Women's Studies Listserv) discussion thread, Stats on Feminists, October 1999. Never forget that a woman who tells a pollster in private, "I am a feminist", may say in public, "I'm not a feminist but . . ."

  9. Camille Paglia, "Academic Feminists Must Begin to Fulfill Their Noble, Animating Ideal, Chronicle of Higher Education, 25 July 1997, B5.

  10. See the WMST-L thread, Stats On Feminists, October 1999. While we can discern stages of feminist consciousness, we still can't pinpoint what exactly will motivate a woman to become an activist. True, it usually happens during a crisis. However, women will react in different ways. Sometimes, women become activists because of others' experiences. A friend said that during her years as the Australian "Dear Abby", she became a feminist because of all the painful letters she got from so many women.

  11. Lili Ann Pintea-Reed, "Justice Is What Matters" in Feminista! July 1999.
    http://www.feminista.com/v3n3/pinteareed.html

  12. Verta Taylor, "Watching for Vibes: Bringing Emotions into the Study of Feminist Organizations" in Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women's Movement, eds. Myra Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995) 224.

  13. Leila J. Rupp and Verta Taylor, Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960's (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987) 97.

  14. Telephone conversation with Betty Lane of New York, NY, 13 June 1999.

  15. See Allan G. Johnson, The Gender Knot: Unraveling Our Patriarchal Legacy (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997) 101-102,128-130; and Steven P. Schacht and Doris W. Ewing, eds., Feminism and Men: Reconstructing Gender Relations (New York; New York University Press, 1998).

  16. Nikki Craft, Oh!BROTHER: Exposing the Phallacies of the Pro-Feminist Men's Movement
    http://www.igc.org/nemesis/ACLU/oh%21BROTHER/index.html

  17. See Margaret L. King, Women of the Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991); and Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Feminist Consciousness: From the Middle Ages to Eighteen-seventy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).

  18. Mary Elizabeth Williams, "Earth to Mars and Venus" in Salon, 20 February 1998,
    http://www.salonmagazine.com/media/1998/02/20media.html

  19. Nina Atwood, Be Your Own Dating Service: A Step-by-Step Guide to Finding and Maintaining Healthy Relationships (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1996) 154-170.

  20. Ibid., 113-118.

  21. Ibid., 196-198.

  22. Ibid., 166-167.

  23. Ibid., 170. While Atwood's claims are not false, she neglects to mention the context of abuse. Several years ago, I dated a Christian fundamentalist whose ex-wife committed adultery and hit him. However, his friends told me that he was a tightwad and that she got tired of being submissive to him. Most female to male violence is done in self-defense, as our mothers would tell us to "slap him whenever he gets 'fresh' with you." The truth is that when a man gets harassed, we get a "post feminist" big budget film like Disclosure. However, when several women get harassed, we get a low-budget TV movie. The incidence of female-on-male sexual harassment doesn't negate the fact that we're in a patriarchy, as shown by two male Rhode Island jewelry workers who won a case in 1991 in which they charged that their boss had ordered them to have sex with his secretary. See Ellen Bravo and Ellen Cassey, The 9 to 5 Guide to Combating Sexual Harassment (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992) 64.

  24. For information about the false parallel technique, see Allan G. Johnson, The Gender Knot: Unraveling Our Patriarchal Legacy (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997)169-173; and Kathleen Trigiani, "Crown Him Patriarch" in Out of the Cave: Exploring Gray's Anatomy, http://web2.airmail.net/ktrig246/out_of_cave/crown.html#sustain

  25. R.W. Connell, Masculinities, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995) 206-211.

  26. Politically Incorrect, 2 September 1997, American Broadcasting Corporation (ABC).

  27. This quip is often attributed to Robin Morgan.

  28. Radical feminism is a highly contested term. My definition comes from Robyn Rowland and Renate Klein, "Radical Feminism: History, Politics, Action", in Radically Speaking: Feminism Reclaimed (Melbourne, Australia: Spinifex Press Pty. Ltd, 1996) Diane Bell and Renate Klein, eds.; Allan G. Johnson, The Gender Knot: Unraveling Our Patriarchal Legacy (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997) 119-124; and Elaine Storkey, What's Right With Feminism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1985) 90-109.

  29. Diane Bell and Renate Klein, eds.,Radically Speaking: Feminism Reclaimed (Melbourne, Australia: Spinifex Press Pty. Ltd., 1996) 19.

  30. Flora Davis, Moving the Mountain: The Women's Movement in America Since 1960 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991) 69-105, 139-143.

  31. Ibid., 137-145.

  32. Such scholars as Alice Echols and Flora Davis believe that radical feminists became cultural separtist feminists in the mid 70's. However, I concur with the authors of Radically Speaking: Feminism Reclaimed that most radical feminists did not escape to the woods to expound on female "superiority". While some radicals became separtists who aimed to develop a "women's culture", most were boldly challenging patriarchy.

  33. Flora Davis, Moving the Mountain: The Women's Movement in America Since 1960 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991) 328-330; and Nikki Craft, The Andrea Dworkin Web Site,
    http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/Porn/newday/TOC.htm

  34. John Gray, Men and Women Online: Married Men
    http://www.zdnet.com/yil/content/mag/9612/gray/grayans5mm.html;
    Andrea Dworkin, Intercourse (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997).

  35. John Gray, Mars and Venus In the Bedroom: A Guide to Lasting Romance and Passion (New York: HarperCollins, 1995) 79; Catherine A. MacKinnon, Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987).

  36. John Gray, Mars and Venus In the Bedroom: A Guide to Lasting Romance and Passion (New York: HarperCollins, 1995) 77-95; Marilyn Frye, "Lesbian Sex" in Lesbian Philosophies, ed. Jeffner Allan (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990).

  37. See "The Department of Propaganda: The Day Gray and Najarian Ran Away" in The Rebuttal From Uranus
    http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/women_rebuttal_from_uranus/reich.htm> While the webpage doesn't give specifics on the listserv conversation, I heard from Susan Hamson that the conflict started when a woman named Cathy wrote that the "bedroom" book made her feel like a cheap two-bit whore. Cathy was offended that Gray told women to dress sexy but NEVER told men how to dress to attract women.

  38. Andrea Dworkin, "Dworkin on Dworkin", in Radically Speaking: Feminism Reclaimed, eds. Diane Bell and Renate Klein (Melbourne, Australia: Spinifex Press Pty. Ltd, 1996) 210.

  39. I'm referring mainly to religious groups such as Catholics, mainline Protestants, reform and conservative Jews, and even evangelical groups like Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship. Even the Republican party realizes it needs to take hate crimes against gays and lesbians seriously.

  40. John Gray, Men and Women Online: Married Men
    http://www.zdnet.com/yil/content/mag/9612/gray/grayans8mm.html

  41. "QUITTING PORNOGRAPHY: Men Speak Out About How They Did It--And Why" in Men Against Pornography
    http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1139/quitporn.html

  42. See the WMST-L thread, Excellent Speaker to Recommend, which raved about his presentation at St. Mary's College, San Francisco, March 19, 1999.

  43. Steven P. Schacht and Doris W. Ewing, eds., Feminism and Men: Reconstructing Gender Relations (New York; New York University Press, 1998).

  44. Alice Walker, "Definition of a Womanist" from In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens: Womanist Prose (San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983).

  45. Patricia Ireland, "The State of NOW", Ms, July/August 1992, 26.

  46. John Gray, Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), 281.

  47. For more information on multicultural feminism, see bell hooks, Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston: South End Press, 1990); Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua, eds., This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1983); Rosemarie Tong, Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998) 212-225; and Gary Lemons, "To Be Black, Male, and Feminist: Making Womanist Space for Black Men on the Eve of a New Millenium" in Feminism and Men: Reconstructing Gender Relations, eds. Steven P. Schacht and Doris W. Ewing (New York; New York University Press, 1998) 43-66.

  48. Heidi Hartmann, "The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Towards a More Progressive Union," in Women and Revolution: A Discussion of the Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism, ed. Lydia Sargent (Boston: South End Press, 1981), 13-14.

  49. Ibid., 2.

  50. Rosemarie Tong, Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998) 105-112; Women and Revolution: A Discussion of the Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism, ed. Lydia Sargent (Boston: South End Press, 1981).

  51. I am referring to the highly publicized settlement where Judge Walter B. Tolub awarded Vira Hladun-Goldmann 50 percent of the $100 million dollar estate she owned with her husband, Robert Goldman, in addition to $44 million in restricted stock in the Congress Financial Corporation. Marxists and socialists would hardly be shocked to see the ex-wives of corporate CEOs getting the first fruits of this reform. However, men and women have a different experience of classism. Most upper class women are surprisingly vulnerable economically, as patriarchy among the wealthy is a tight system. See Gloria Steinem, "The Masculinization of Wealth" in Moving Beyond Words (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994) 169-196.

  52. See National Committee For Pay Equity,
    http://www.feminist.com/fairpay.htm

  53. When pressed on the issue, Steinem says she considers herself a radical feminist. However, she took the standard liberal feminist stance in the Clinton scandals, to the chagrin of many radical and socialist feminists, who think she has sold out to the Democrats. See Clara Fraser, Revolution, She Wrote (Seattle: Red Letter Press, 1998); and Marianne Schnall, "Interview With Gloria Steinem",
    http://www.feminist.com/gloria.htm

  54. Lori Lebovich, "Does President Clinton Feel Women's Pain--Or Cause It? Feminist Author Barbara Ehrenreich Lashes Out At A White House Workplace That Seems Organized Around The President's 'Problem'," in Salon, 19 March 1998,
    http://www.salonmag.com/mwt/hot/1998/03/19hot.html

  55. Lydia Sargent, "Hotel Satire Gals" in Z Magazine, February 1997,
    http://www.lbbs.org/zmag/articles/feb97hotel.html

  56. Clara Fraser, Revolution, She Wrote (Seattle: Red letter Press, 1998).

  57. Discussion of the diversity within ecofeminism is beyond the scope of this essay. For more information, I suggest Rosemarie Tong, Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998) 246-277; and Greta Gaard, Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998)11-52.

  58. Jann Aldredge-Clanton, "Feminist Theology",
    http://lucky13.org/janna/

  59. Renee T. Louise and Ruth M. Sprague, "Beam Me Up, Amazon!" in Gender Gappers
    http://www.gate.net/~liz/gappers/1999-021.htm

  60. John Gray, Mars and Venus in the Bedroom (New York: HarperCollins, 1995) 57-59.

  61. Greta Gaard, Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998).

  62. They were obviously taking advantage of the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA) definition of feminism: "The ethics of cooperation and understanding must replace the values of domination and control". This extremely weak definition was obviously designed to be non-threatening to men.

  63. Gina Ogden, "What Planet Are We On?" in New Age Journal, January/February 1998, 52.

  64. Greta Gaard, Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998) 44.

  65. Riane Eisler, The Chalice and the Blade (New York: HarperCollins, 1995) 214.

  66. Rosemarie Tong, Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998) 140-170.

  67. Diane Ehrensaft, Parenting Together: Men and Women Sharing the Care of Their Children (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990).

  68. Susan Faludi, Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1991) 332.

  69. Katha Pollitt, "Marooned on Gilligan's Island: Are Women Morally Superior to Men?" in Reasonable Creatures: Essays on Women and Feminism (New York: Vintage, 1994).

  70. Ellen Barry, "Mars and Venus Go to Work" in The Boston Phoenix, 27 July 1998,
    http://www.weeklywire.com/ww/07-27-98/boston_feature_1.html

  71. Sheila Ruth, Issues in Feminism: An Introduction to Women's Studies (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publiching Co., 1998) 59-60.

  72. Rosemarie Tong, Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998) 195.

  73. Ibid., 199-206.

  74. Joe Staples, Swetnam is From Mars, Sowernam's From Uranus: Masculine Discourse in Renaissance and Contemporary Constructions of Gender,
    http://members.aol.com/fastaple/private/discourse.htm

  75. It's not hard to find academics making fun of postmodern language. See Stephen Katz, How to Speak and Write Postmodern,
    http://broquard.tilted.com/postmodern/speak.html As far as I'm concerned, when I read a good radical feminist book, I want to go out and do something. But when I read most postmodern books, including the feminist ones, I want to take a nap.

  76. Rosemarie Tong, Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998) 206.

  77. I have a feeling that Irigaray is not experiencing much jouissance, or joyfulness, over these trends in feminist sexuality. See Luce Irigaray, This Sex Which Is Not One, Catherine Porter with Carolyn Burke, trans. (New York: Cornell University Press, 1985), 196-204. For examples of "feminist pornography", do a web search on "Susie Bright" and "Annie Sprinkle". In the early 90's, many activists thought a feminist pornography would usher in a post-patriarchal sexuality. But the powers-that-be would never let it happen.

  78. Ibid., 140.

  79. Christine Delphy, "French Feminism: An Imperialist Invention" in Radically Speaking: Feminism Reclaimed, eds. Diane Bell and Renate Klein, (Melbourne, Australia: Spinifex Press Pty. Ltd, 1996) 383-392.

  80. A web search on "Men's Studies" will give more than enough evidence of the anti-feminist nature of many of these programs. Don't let the "post feminist" label fool you. Regarding Gender Studies, some programs are solidly feminist, several are oblivious to our culture's phallic drift and a few are anti-feminist.

  81. Annie Potts, "The Science/Fiction of Sex: John Gray's Mars and Venus in the Bedroom" in Sexualities 1(2):

  82. In a phone conversation on October 19, 1999, I asked Susan to respond to these comments. While admitting that she doesn't use stereotypical pomo language and isn't trying to invent a new discourse, she nonetheless maintains that she is using postmodernist feminist tools to critique Gray. She focuses heavily on how Gray rehashes a familiar patriarchal discourse to create a reality. What could be more pomofem than that! While Potts couldn't be reached for comment, the introduction to "The Science/Fiction of Sex" says that the article employes "feminist critique, influenced by poststructuralism". Again, while Potts also uses standard language, she nonetheless relies quite heavily on pomofem insights. She pays close attention to how he uses language to create a patriarchal reality, to his phallocentric views on sexuality, and to his denigration of female sexual agency.

  83. In the October 19, 1999 phone conversation, Susan said she didn't mind being called a postmodern feminist. Susan agrees with most criticisms of postmodern feminism but supports its goal of creating a non-patriarchal discourse. The appeal of pomofem for Susan rests in its critique of language. However, she doesn't view pomofem as a religion and feels free to use other feminisms in her critique of Mr. Mars&Venus.

  84. Eugenia C. DeLamotte, ed., Women Imagine Change: A Global Anthology of Women's Resistance from 600 B.C.E. to Present (New York: Routledge, 1999).

  85. Bell hooks, "Men: Comrades in Struggle" in Feminism and Men: Reconstructing Gender Relations, eds. Steven P. Schacht and Doris W. Ewing (New York; New York University Press, 1998) 278.


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